表示建议的句型

◆其后接动词原形的句型 Let's …, shall we? Why not do sth? Don't do sth

You'd better do sth Shall I/we do sth? You'd better not do sth Why don't you do sth? We should / can do sth. ◆其后接不定式的句型 It's a good idea to do sth. Would you like to do sth? Try to do sth.

Remember to do sth. Don't forget to do sth. .

◆其后接动名词的句型 How/ What about doing sth?

现在完成时

一、现在完成时的用法:

现在完成时表示一个过去发生并结束的动作对现在产生的结果和影响。这一类情况可以分为下面两种情况: ◆表示过去发生的或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常和recently, just, now, already, yet, not…yet等连用。如:

Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。 (说明现在灯关上了) I've finished my homework now. 现在我已经做完作业了。(说明可以交作业或做别的了) ◆表示动作或状态在过去已经开始,持续到现在,也许还要持续下去。常和for, since连用。

如:We have lived here since 2000.

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二、基本结构:

主语+have/has+动词的过去分词。否定形式应在have/has后加not变为

haven't/hasn't;疑问句应将have/has放在句子主语之前。被动形式为:has/have been done。如: I have read the book.

I have not seen him before.

This book has been returned to the library.

三、现在完成时和一般过去时的区别

现在完成时与一般过去时都表示在过去发生的动作,但现在完成时强调这一动作与现在的关系,如动作对现在产生的影响、结果等;而一般过去时则只表示过去的事实,不表示和现在的关系。所以,一些表示过去时间的状语只能与一般过去时连用,而不能与现在完成时连用,如果句中有ago, last等表过去时间的词或用when对过去的动作发生的时间进行提问,则不能用现在完成时。 例1: I have seen the film. (我现在已经了解这部电影的内容了) I saw the film last week. (只说明上周看过电影,不涉及现在) 例2: He has lived here since 1972. (现在还住在这里) He lived here in 1972. (不涉及他现在是否住在这儿)

例3: I have bought a red car. (既叙述了过去发生的动作,又强调了与现在的关系)

l bought a red car. (只叙述过去发生的事实,与现在无关) 例4: Have you ever picked flowers or stepped on the grass in a park? 你们曾在公园里摘过花或踩过草地吗?

例5:My father bought that watch ten years ago. 我的爸爸十年前买了那块手表。 四、几个副词的区别

1). already, still与yet

already用于肯定句,表示\已经\;still 表示某事仍在进行,主要用于肯定句;yet用于否定句句末,表示\还\,用于疑问句句末,表示\已经\。

He had already left when I called. 当我给他打电话时,他已经离开了。 Have you found your ruler yet? 你已经找到你的尺子了吗? I haven't finished my homework yet. 我还没有完成作业。

It's seven o'clock, but they are still having a meeting. 现在已经七点了,但他们仍在

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开会。

注意:already还可以表示惊奇,惊讶等语气,常用于疑问句句末。

Has your son gone to school already? 你的儿子已经上学了吗?(表示很惊讶)

2). 副词ever 和never多用于否定或疑问句中,表示\曾经\和\从未\等。 如: ---Have you ever seen this movie? 你曾经看过这部电影吗? ---I have never seen it. 我从未看过。 3). for与since

since后接时间点,for后接一段时间。如: I've studied English for two years. They have lived in Beijing since 1990. 五、延续性动词和非延续性动词的用法

延续性动词是指该动词所表示的动作可以延续一段时间,如:live, work, study, teach, stay等。非延续性动词是指该动词所表示的动作不能延续,是在短时间里完成的,如:borrow, come, arrive, get, leave, die等。 1、用于完成时的区别

延续性动词表示经验、经历;非延续性动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。(表示结果) I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表示经历) 2、非延续性动词变为延续性动词的方法 非延续性动词 延续性动词 come/go be at/in arrive/reach be begin/start be on borrow keep buy have close be closed die be dead get up be up join be in leave be away open be open

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put on wear catch a cold have a cold fall asleep be asleep

六、have/has been to,have/has gone to和have/has been in的区别

have been to 表示\去过\某地,常与 ever, never, …before, once, twice 等连用;have gone to 表示\去了\某地,人可能在途中或已经到达那里。have been in表示\已在某地(呆了多久)\。如:

1) ---Have you ever been to Beijing? 你去过北京吗? ---Yes, I've been there twice. 是的,我去过那里两次。 2) My parents have gone to the park. 我父母去公园了。

3) They have been in China for two years. 他们已经在中国呆了两年了。 练习:

I. 用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空。 A: Where ____________ Li Fei ___________? B: He ____________ to Hainan Island.

A: How long ___________ he ___________ there? B: He _____________ there for three days.

A: When will he come back , do you know? B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently. A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island? B: Sorry, I _________ never ___________ there.

A: How many times ___________ Li Fei __________ to that place? B: He _____________ there only once.

II. 用have/has been to/in, have gone to及go的各种形式填空。 1.Where is Jack? He __________ his country.

2.David ________ the park just now.

3.John _______ England since he came back. 4.How long _____ have _____ this village? 5.The Smiths ______ Beijing for years.

6._____ you ever ____ America? -- Yes, I _____ there many times. 7.I _____ this school since three years ago. 8.Where is Jim? He _____ the farm.

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9.When_____ he _____? He _______ an hour ago.

10.Would you like to _____ the zoo with me? ---Yes, but I _____ there before. 11.Where _____ you _____ now? --- I ____ the zoo. 12.He often _____ swimming.

13._____ you ______ there last year?

14._____ they often ______ skating in winter? III.翻译下列句子:

1.他已经来中国三年多了。 2.他们出国两个月了。 3.我从来没去过长城。 4.你曾经出过国吗? 5.他已经去图书馆了。 6.他来这儿五年了。 7.昨天他去了公园。 8.“你要去哪里?” “我要去学校。” 9.他常常去游泳。

反意疑问句语法归纳

反意疑问句是由两部分组成的,前一部分是对事物的陈述(即陈述

句),后一部分是简短的提问(即简短疑问句),中间用逗号隔开。如果前一部分用肯定句,后一部分就用否定疑问句;如果前一部分用否定句,后一部分就用肯定疑问句。两部分的人称和时态要一致。其回答是用yes或no来表示。

一、陈述句部分有be动词、助动词、情态动词,反问句也用相应的 be动词、

助动词、情态动词。 例如1. You are from America, aren’t you?

2.Your parents aren’t going to have a party .this Sunday, are they? 3.The girls were singing when the teacher came in, weren’t they? 4. You can speak French, can’t you?

5. Ann could swim when she was six, couldn’t she? 6. Mr. Smith will visit our school next week, won’t he? 7. You have been to Shanghai before, haven’t you?

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